Bottom of ASEAN: Impact of Rushed Investment in “Last Frontier” Countries-Burma/Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos on Labour and Migration

BoA Discussion Paper

The Bottom of ASEAN discussion paper is an analysis of the impact of rushed investment in “Last Frontier” countries-Myanmar/Burma, Cambodia and Laos on labour and migration. The paper points out that poor labour standards and extremely low wages cause many workers  from these developing economies to migrate to neighbouring countries.  Once  they  migrate,  they  frequently  suffer  further  exploitation  and  discrimination which is often justified by policy-makers and the business sectors as “better than the situation in the countries of origin”. As a result, workers have no way out to escape exploitation at the bottom  of  the  supply  chain,  whether  at  home  or  in  destination  countries. It outlines recommendations to the governments and relevant stakeholders and advocates for improved labour protection and fairer wages for all workers at the Bottom of ASEAN, whether they are  migrant workers who have moved internally within their country or are working in other countries in the region.

Published 2014. PDF available at:

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